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TCP/IP Utilities

Ping - Verifies connectivity by sending an ICMP packet and listening for a reply.
Traceroute/Tracert - Sends ICMP packets to trace the path data takes to reach its destination. Useful for determining network response time problems.
NetStat - Displays information about TCP/IP connections.
NbtStat - Troubleshoots connectivity issues between two clients using the NetBT protocol.
ARP - Translates IP addresses to MAC addresses.
Route - Displays and sets routes for data to take to different networks.
IPConfig/winipcfg/ifconfig - Displays network configuration settings. Ipconfig is used under windows NT, 2000, XP. Winipcfg is for use under windows 9x. ifconfig is used in linux. Ipconfig uses /release /renew to release and renew DHCP leases. /All will display more detailed information.
LPQ - Displays remote linux print queue status.
LPR - Sends print job to remote print queues.

Network Operating Systems

WindowsNT/2000 - Directory managed network operating system based around a GUI console. Clients include Windows 95/98/NT/2000, Windows for workgroups, DOS, *NIX, Macintosh, and Novell Netware

Netware - Directory managed resource based configuration that uses a command prompt console interface. File system is a mixture of FAT and Directory Entry Table (DET).

Unix/Linux - Command line based operating system. A GUI is provided by a third party package called X Windows. Operates in a multiuser environment.

IP Addressing <<  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
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IPTables Primer
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