NetBIOS is nonroutable protocol mainly used on Microsoft networks. Broadcasting, WINS and LMHOSTS files are how NetBIOS resolves names. WINS servers store NetBIOS names and their respective addresses. WINS replication updates the database between multiple WINS servers. There are two types of WINS replication. Push replication occurs when a server reaches a certain threshold for changes it pushes the changes to other WINS servers. During pull replication a server pulls updates from another server at a predetermined time. WINS Proxy allows for b-node broadcasts to be forwarded to a WINS server then the proxy takes the response and forwards it to the requesting client. LMHOSTS files are static files stored on client machines to resolve NetBIOS names.H-node - hybrid node that first queries a WINS server then attempts to find the host via broadcast if there is no response from the WINS server.
DNS resolves hostnames to IP addresses. This is the basis of name resolution used on the internet. Primary DNS servers are the master servers. Primary DNS servers are the only ones that accept updates from other machines. Secondary DNS servers get their DNS records from a primary DNS server. These DNS servers are slave servers that process requests for clients. When a secondary DNS server can't fill a request they query the primary server. Secondary DNS servers get updates through zone transfer. Caching DNS servers don't keep any static records of their own. They just keep a record of queries in case that query is needed later. Caching DNS servers are mainly used for load balancing and redundancy.